A camera is an optical instrument for recording or catching pictures to another area or both. The pictures might be individual still photos or arrangements of pictures constituting videos or movies. The cameras are a remote sensing device as it senses subjects without physical contact. The word camera come from camera obscure that means dark chamber. Camera is the Latin name of the original device for projecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface. The modern photographic camera evolved from the camera obscure the functioning of the human eye. The files permanent photograph of a camera image was made in 1826 by Joseph Nicopher Niepce.
Some cameras are made for use under water, including modern waterproof digital cameras. The first amphibious camera was the Calypso, reintroduced as the Nikons in 1963. The Nikons range was designed specifically for use under water . Nikon ended the Nilonos series in 2001 and its use has declined, as that of other 35 mm film systems. Sea and SEA USA made the motor marine 111, an amphibious range-finder camera for 35 mm film. Cameras that are made for normal work can also work even under water, and are protected by add on housings. which are made for point and shoot cameras , compact cameras with full exposure controls. Single lens reflex cameras most such housings are specific to the camera. Materials range from relatively in expensive plastic to high priced aluminum.
Casings allow many options from which users can choose housings specific to their everyday land cameras and use any Lens. Photographers generally use wide angle lenses or macro lenses under water, both of which allow close focus. Therefore a shorter distance to the subject, which reduces the loss of clarity to scattering. Digital media can hold many more shots than standard film (which rarely has more than 36 frames per roll). This gives digital cameras an advantage, since it is impractical to change film underwater. Under water housings have control knobs and buttons that reach the camera inside allowing use of most of its normal functions.
Waterproof Cameras under water
These housings may also have connectors to attach outward flash units. Some basic casings allow the use of the flash may not be powerful enough or properly placed for underwater use more advanced housings either Re direct the on board strobe to fire a slave strobe via a fiber optic cable, or physically prevent the use of the on board strobe. Housings are made waterproof by silicon or other elastomeric O-rings at the crucial and where control spindles and push buttons pass through the housing high end critical push buttons and spindles to reduce the risk of leaks, which can destroy the electronics in cameras. Some cameras are basically waterproof, or submersible to shallow depths, when these are in submersible casings; the consequences of a small leak are generally not serious.
The use of a strobe is often determined as the most critical aspect of underwater photography. Some wrong workings exist about the proper use of flash underwater, especially as it relates to wide angle photography. Generally the flash should be used to supplement the overall exposure and to restore lost color, not as the as the primary light source.
In situations such as the interior of ship wrecks, wide angle images can be 100%strobe light, but such situations are pretty rare. Usually, the photographer tries to create an elegant balance in between the sunlight which is available and the strobe. But deep, dark or low visibility environments can make this balance more difficult, but the concept remains the same.
• Digital camera as underwater can render photography a very exciting and agreeable and hobby.
• You can take as many shots as you wish and visualize them there and then on your LCD screen.
• Adjust the defects and control the effects on your photography by using special programmers available on computers which are a great advantage over photographs.
• Fragile storage
• Heavy cost
• High battery consumption
• It applicable in wild life photography in sea
• Applicable in sub marines to see what is happening outside water
• Applicable at wars on water and seas.