This is how light emitting diode works

A light emitting diode is a two-lead semiconductor light source. In the event that the required voltage is connected to the leads, electrons will recombine with electron gaps inside the gadget. By discharging energy as photons. This impact is called electroluminescence, and the shade of the light  is dictated by the energy band hole of the semiconductor. (relating to the energy of the photon). LED’s are regularly little (under 1 mm). They incorporated optical parts might be utilized to shape the radiation design.

Working of light emitting diode

Electroluminescence as a phenomenon was found in 1907 by the British experimenter H. J. Round of Marconi Labs, utilizing a precious stone of silicon carbide and a cat’s-bristle indicator. Russian innovator Oleg Losev announced formation of the primary LED in 1927. His research was distributed in Soviet, German and British scientific journals, but no practical use was made of the discovery for several decades. Kurt Lehovec, Carl Accardo, and Edward Jamgochian explained these first light-emitting diodes in 1951. Using an apparatus employing SiC crystals with a current source of battery or pulse generator. Then with a comparison to a variant, pure, crystal in 1953. A P-N junction can convert absorbed light energy into a proportional electric current. The same process is reversed. This phenomenon is generally called electroluminescence. Which can be defined as the emission of light from a semiconductor under the influence of an electric field.

LED light emitting diode

The charge carriers recombine in a forward-biased P-N junction. As the electrons cross from the N-region and recombine with the holes existing in the P-region. Consequently Free electrons are in the conduction band of energy levels, while holes are in the valence energy band. Thus the energy level of the holes is less than the energy levels of the electrons. Some portion of the energy must be dissipated to recombine the electrons and the holes. This energy is emitted in the form of heat and light.

Finally the electrons releases the energy in form of heat for silicon and germanium diodes but in the case of gallium arsenide phosphate (GaAsP), the electrons release the energy by emitting photons. If the semiconductor is translucent, the junction becomes the provider of light as it is emitted, thus becoming a light-emitting diode.

light emitting diode

However, when the junction is reverse biased, the LED produces no light and—if the potential is great enough, the device is damaged. The most common symptom of LED (and diode laser) failure is due to the gradual lowering of light output and loss of efficiency. Sudden failures, although rare, can also occur. Early red LEDs were notable for their short service life. To quantity useful lifetime in a standardized manner, some suggest using L70 or L50, which are runtimes (typically in thousands of hours) at which a given LED reaches 70% and 50% of initial light output, respectively.

LED light emitting diode

Therefore the current voltage characteristic of an LED light emitting diode is same as the other diodes, Therefore in that the current is dependent explicitly on the voltage. This means that a small change in voltage can cause a large change in current. If the applied voltage exceeds due to LED’s they forward voltage drops by a small amount. And if the current rating is exceeded by a large amount, potentially damages or destroys the LED.

The typical solution is to use constant-current power supplies to keep the current below the LED’s maximum current rating. Almost all the common power sources like batteries and mains are constant voltage sources; most LED fixtures must include a power converter, at least a current-limiting resistor. However, the high resistance of three-volt coin cells combined with the high differential resistance of nitrite-based LED’s makes it possible to power such an LED from such a coin cell without an external resistor.


  • First of all LED light emitting diode have High efficiency
  • Shading: LED’s can produce light of a planned shading without utilizing any shading channels as customary lighting techniques require. This is more productive and can bring down starting expenses.
  • Size:In addition these LED’s are very small in nature.
  • Warm-up time: As a result LED’s light up very quickly


  • Electrical extremity: Unlike radiant lights, which illuminates paying little mind to the electrical extremity. LED’s just light with correct electrical extremity Blue
  • Hazard: There is a concern that blue LED’s and cool-white LED’s are now capable of exceeding safe limits for effecting eyes.
  • Recommended Practice for Photo biological Safety for Lamp and Lamp Systems.
  • Light pollution: Because white LED’s, especially those with high color temperature, emit much shorter wavelength.

Applications of  light emitting diode

  • Indicators and signs.
  • Especially relevant Lighting.
  • Light sources for machine vision systems.

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