Telecommunication basically is the process of transmitting signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology. It is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing.
Telecommunication is communication at a distance by technological means, particularly through electrical signals or electromagnetic waves. The word telecommunications often used in its plural form, because it contains many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs. In the first decade of the 20th century begun a revolution in the wireless communication with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909.
Three basic requirements of telecommunication system are:
- Transmitter takes information from the user and converts it in to a signal.
- Physical channel carries the signal. Example: “free space channel”.
- The Receivers take the signal from the channel and converts into usable information.
The term “channel” has two different meanings. In one way, a channel is the physical medium that takes and transfers a signal between the transmitter and the receiver. For some Examples: sound communications, some kinds of optical communications, coaxial cables for communications by way of the voltages and electric currents.
The sending of radio waves from one place to another has nothing to do with the presence or absence of an atmosphere between the two. The Radio waves travel through a complete vacuum just as easily as they travel through air, fog, clouds, or any other kind of gas besides air.
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