How do Volcanoes form?

What is Volcano

A volcano is a vent which transfers molten rock known as magma from depth to the Earth’s surface. Magma erupting from a volcano is called lava and is the material which builds up the cone surrounding the vent.

 

volcano is a mountain made of burnt materials that can throw hot stones and lava ( hot liquid rock) from a hole at its top.Magma erupting from a volcano is called lava. It is stored in the interior of the Earth in a large reservoir known as magma chamber. Formation of  magma takes place, by the continuous fusion of the solid rock, because of which, the temperature of the chamber of the magma is immensely high.

Formation of Volcano

 

 

Earth consists of three  layers. The outer crust that we live on. Scientists estimate that it’s approximately 1800 miles deep. The next layer is called the mantle, which is composed of molten materials and gasses. The molten materials are basically solids that have become liquid due to extremely high heat. The collective name of these rocks and molten gases is magma. Magma is a liquid composed of numerous fragments, crystals, and gasses that include silicon, oxygen, aluminum, manganese, iron, and magnesium. When they are forced to surface, they become cold and become igneous and magnetic rocks.

The outer core mimics a ball of boiling metals about 4000 degrees F. to 9000 degrees F. The degree of heat in the outer core causes all metals in it to be liquid, rich in molten iron and nickel. When pressure builds up in the mantle the volcanic eruption is likes to occur. In the course of an eruption, the molten materials flow through the openings of the earth’s crust to the surface. It’s important to note that it is important to note that molten rock is known as magma when it is still below the earth’s crust. When it comes to the surface during an eruption, it is known as lava.

Volcanic eruptions can occur in the form of fragments of lava firing into the atmosphere that leads to heavy lava clouds. Some lava eruptions are non-violent and gradually flow from other surrounding openings and accumulate in surrounding areas. The loose ash particles also shoot into the atmosphere, and because of their light nature, they are swept away by strong winds. The lava emitted below the earth’s crust is about 2, 200 degrees Fahrenheit. When it shoots out of the vent, it is usually warm red, but becomes dark when it cools. Silicon-laden lava imitates honey and flows gradually from vents, eruptions show the ability and strength of nature to carve the earth in a remarkable way.

Types of Volcanoes

Types of volcanoes

  • Composite Volcanoes
  • Cinder Cone Volcanoes
  • Shield Volcanoes
  • Lava domes

Effects of Volcanoes

Volcanic eruptions are great spectacles to watch. Eruptions exhibit the ability and strength of nature to carve up the earth in a remarkable way. “But apart from the big show, they have long-range effects and the negative and positive effects of volcanoes are highlighted below:

Positive Effects

  • Creation of beautiful Scenery
  • Source of Nutrients
  • Energy Opportunity

Negative Effects

  • Impacts on Environment and also near by cities and Towns
  • Problems to Airplanes
  • High magnitude volcanoes can uproot populations.
  • Destruction of infrasructure

 

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